Introducing django-downloadview

At Novapost, we develop online document storage services, where download is a standard feature. We use the Django framework, and we needed some advanced file-download features. However, as of version 1.4, Django doesn't provide such features, and it seems that download views are not in the roadmap.

So, welcome django-downloadview.

Use case

As a developer, you are asked to add download features to websites:

  • download PDF documents as attachment,
  • export data as CSV files,
  • generate archives (tar.gz)...

Sometimes you can simply make sure that those files are on server's disk, then serve them as static files.

But sometimes you can't, because the files are generated dynamically, or you have to perform some backend operations such as user authentication.

Using Django, you can write views that return files as attachment, with very little code. But that's always the same "copy-paste-adapt" pattern. In order to keep it DRY, you'd appreciate an API.

Last but not least, streaming files with Django (and with Python in general) isn't the most efficient way to go. Http servers and reverse proxies (nginx, lighttpd, ...) are far more efficient. Luckily, many servers allow proxied services (i.e. Django) to delegate the actual streaming process. This feature is generally known as "x-sendfile". As an example, see Lighttpd's X-Sendfile documentation.

Django-downloadview simplifies the implementation of download views with Django, with pluggable x-sendfile support.


Given some Django model with a FileField:

# In some
from django.db import models

class Document(models.Model):
    """A sample model with a FileField."""
    slug = models.SlugField(verbose_name='slug')
    file = models.FileField(verbose_name='file', upload_to='document')

You can easily create a view that returns the file contents as attachment:

# In some
from django.conf.urls import patterns, url
from django_downloadview import ObjectDownloadView
from document.models import Document  # The model we created upward.

download_document = ObjectDownloadView.as_view(model=Document)

urlpatterns = patterns('',
    url(r'^document/(?P<slug>[a-zA-Z0-9_-]+)/$', download_document),

Pretty straightforward isn't it?

Of course, there are several ways to get download views. ObjectDownloadView supports more options (basically, all options inherited from DetailView, more some options related to the download).


You have the download view, let's optimize the streaming. Depending on your use case, you can enable global optimization with a middleware, or setup per-view optimizations via decorators. Read the documentation about optimizations for details.

As of version 1.0, django-downloadview has built-in support of Nginx's X-Accel only. But contributions are welcome ;)

Made for overrides

We tried to make django-downloadview simple to use, and simple to adapt:

  • for most cases, using the built-in views is quick and enough;
  • for special cases, class-based views and utilities should be easy to extend and override.

Do you feel some use case cannot easily be implemented? Let us know!.


After the 1.0 release, two big user stories were identified, which could require some API refactoring.

Get closer to django-sendfile

django-sendfile is another project related to Django and downloads.

Do the two projects share the same scope? Maybe not.

Nevertheless, there are features we like in django-sendfile:

  • one active backend at a time. Given there are poor chances you want optimizations for several servers at once (i.e. return Nginx's X-Accel for some views and Lighttp's X-Sendfile for others), one "backend" should be enough. As an example, we should need only one "download middleware" instance, which gets a backend as argument.
  • the API made of a single sendfile() function. Even if django-downloadview keeps on providing class-based views, it should be possible to use a multi-purpose sendfile() function within implementation of views. Then maybe use django-sendfile, or reconsider the pull-request(s) from django-downloadview to django-sendfile.

Follow "unique backend" story on the bugtracker.

Use file wrappers

As of version 1.0, django-downloadview computes file attributes within the view. That's hard work because file attributes really depend on the file: it could be a dynamically generated file to be streamed without being stored on disk, it could be a file on the local filesystem, or a remote file in a Django storage...

It seems much more suitable to use file wrappers within download views and responses:

  • the file wrapper exposes attributes such as file name, size, url, content... Some of the attributes may not be supported, depending of the file, the storage or whatever.
  • views and response use file attributes, and that's enough. When some attribute isn't supported, fallback is supported.

Looks like Django's FieldFile and File wrappers can be used out of the box!

Follow "file wrappers" story on the bugtracker.

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